Hardwood Defect Tutorial



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Bark: The tough outer covering of the woody stems and roots of trees, shrubs, and other woody plants. It includes all tissues outside the vascular cambium.

Cambium: A series of formative cells lying outside of the wood proper and inside of the inner bark. The growth of new wood takes place in the cambium, which is very soft.

Stem: The main ascending axis of a plant; a stalk or trunk.

Bole: The trunk of a tree.

Sapwood: The newly formed outer wood located just inside the vascular cambium of a tree trunk and active in the conduction of water. Sapwood is usually lighter in color than heartwood.

Heartwood: The older, nonliving central wood of a tree or woody plant, usually darker and harder than the younger sapwood.

The terms defined on this page are from www.dictionary.com