Hardwood Defect Tutorial



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Hardwood Defect Quiz

Identifying Defects

Directions: Match the defect in Column A to the corresponding definition in Column B. Remember! This quiz is for reinforcement purposes only. If the answer is not familiar or obvious, go back and practice more

Column A

1. Bulge

2. Bumps

3. Burls

4. Butt Scar

5. Butt Swell

6. Cankers

7. Galls

8. Lesions

9. Conks

10. Flanges

11. Flutes

12. Forks

13. Knots

Column B

a. Triangular shaped gap at the base of the bole- can be a few inches or several feet long.

b. Folds or convolutions in the surface, extending upward from the base.

c. Localized necrotic lesion, primarily of bark and cambium.

d. Protuberance on the tree or log surface that is overgrown with bark.

e. Cut or broken-off limbs that are protruding with exposed sound or rotten wood.

f. Localized, spindle-shaped necrotic canker consisting of bark and cambium.

g. Expansion of the lower end of the tree trunk above and beyond the stump flare.

h. Division of the main stem into 2 or more stems at any point above the root collar.

i. Sound, hard, woody excrescence or protuberance that forms on the bole or branch.

j. A fibrous or fleshy fruiting body of a wood rotting fungus.

k. General enlargement of the stem of a tree or a log.

l. Pronounced excrescence of woody tissue that appears in response to irritation by an alien organism.

m. Triangular, buttress- or wing-like formations projecting upward from the base.

Tutorial Index

Directions: Decide if the following statements are True or False. If it is False, make sure you know the right answer to correct it.

14. The main difference between scalable defects (rot, shake, and severe checks) and grade defects (knots, stains, holes, and bark pockets) is that grade defects are not removed in primary manufacture.

15. Defective timber (rough, rotten, and often overmature trees) does not contain any usable material.

16. Sweep and Crook are both terms that indicate a deviation from normal stem form.

17. Veneer logs are among the highest value grading standards.

18. Tree abnormalities are assigned to two general classes: those on the surface of the stem and its sections, and those on the ends of the sections.

19. Logs that contain more than 40% of a discolored heart, can still be used for prime veneer logs as long as there aren't any other defects present.

20. Once trees are cut into logs and piled, they are free from exposure to other defects.

21. Some surface defects can be classified as a log-end defect if they appear on the end.

22. One difference in log-end defects and surface defects is the fact that log-end defects are often allowed and are judged on concentration in the wood, rather than their presence alone.

23. The section of a log that yields the most profit is the slab section.

24. Surface defects are located only on the surface and do not extend below the slab section.